The Impact of Time and Time Delay on the Bullwhip Effect in Supply Chains

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Tabriz, Tabriz

2 Department of Management, Meshkinshahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Meshkinshahr, Iran



Measuring the bullwhip effect (BWE) in manufacturing system is one of the most important concerns of the experts. In this regard, many studies have been conducted to measure this phenomenon. The nature of the BWE requires that its score increase over time. In fact, passage of the time adds to the magnitude and creates unrealistic scores. In other words, two different BWE with equal score may have different sensitivities and production patterns. We show that the difference between these seemingly equal values has been ignored in the previous methods. We define this new score as Relative Bullwhip Effect (RBWE). Also, the impact of delays on the RBE was probed. To do this, a network inverse data envelopment analysis (N-IDEA) was proposed in a supply chain with time delay. The impact of delays on the relative bullwhip effect in the first stage is greater than the second stage. According to the research findings, cross-sectional planning is possible at different times according to different delays. Therefore, using the results of the research, a fair score of the bullwhip effect can be obtained by considering all perspectives. Finally, we illustrated the RBWE score in the proposed network compared with the frequency response method.